体能 2019-04-12 15:41:21
4589 体能 2019-04-12 15:41:21

Observation and technicalcharacterization in  swimming: 200 mbreaststroke

Ana ConceiçãoI, III; António SilvaII,III; Tiago M. BarbosaIII, IV; Hugo LouroI, III

IHigher Sports School of Rio Maior, RioMaior, Portugal IIUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real,Portugal IIICenter of Investigation in Sports, Health and Human Development,Vila Real, Portugal IVNanyang Technological
University, Singapore


[p]Characterization of the breaststroke technique,regarding the relationship between kinematic and neuromuscular parameters.[/p][p]关于运动学和神经肌肉参数之间关系的蛙泳技术的表征。[/p]


[p]Surface electromyographic signals (EMG)were used to yze the dynamics of neuromuscular activity of the musclespectoralis major (PM), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB) and anteriordeltoid (AD), in twelve national elite swimmers. A couple of cameras (anunderwater camera and an above the water surface camera) were used to provide adual projection that permits ysis of kinematic variables (Speed, SF, SL) inthe 200 m breaststroke event.[/p][p]表面肌电信号(EMG)用于分析12名全国优秀游泳运动员的胸大肌(PM),肱二头肌(BB),肱三头肌(TB)和前三角肌(AD)的神经肌肉活动动态。一对相机(水下相机和水面相机上方)用于提供双投影,允许分析200米蛙泳事件中的运动学变量(速度,SF,SL)。[/p]


[p]Swimming speed decreased from 1.41 (0.07)to 1.16 (0.09) m.s1(P<0.05). Stroke length decreased from 2.32 (0.37) to1.96 (0.24) m, while stroke frequency suffered decrease from 37.52 (5.16) to34.40 (3.58) cycle/min of 1st lap 50 m until the 3rd lap of 50 m, slightlyincreasing in the last lap to 35.82 (3.39) cycle/min. Blood lactate increasedfrom 1.12 (0.22) to 12.00 (3.23) mmol.L-1. EMG results indicated increase infrequency concerning amplitude for all muscles studied: BB, PM and TB, exceptfor the AD. Negative correlation between speed frequency, SF and SL wasobtained, i.e. to the muscles BB, TB and PM there was a correlation betweenspeed, SF and SL, meaning that as the kinematic variables increase, thefrequency decreases. The correlations suggested that the neuromuscularactivation presents a direct correlation with the kinematic variables,especially for frequency reduction in the BB, TB and PM muscles, and to a highextent and correlation with the kinematic variables in PM.[/p][p]游泳速度从1.41(0.07)降至1.16(0.09)m.s1(P <0.05)。行程长度从2.32(0.37)减少到1.96(0.24)m,而行程频率从第一圈50米的37.52(5.16)减少到34.40(3.58)周/分,直到第三圈50米,略有增加。最后一圈为35.82(3.39)周期/分钟。血乳酸从1.12(0.22)增加到12.00(3.23)mmol.L-1。 EMG结果表明所研究的所有肌肉的振幅频率增加:BB,PM和TB,AD除外。获得速度频率,SF和SL之间的负相关,即对于肌肉BB,TB和PM,速度,SF和SL之间存在相关性,这意味着作为运动学变量增加,频率降低。相关性表明神经肌肉激活与运动学变量直接相关,特别是对于BB,TB和PM肌肉的频率降低,并且在很大程度上与PM中的运动学变量相关。[/p]


[p]The relationship between the kinematicvariables and EMG is decisive in the swimming performance evaluation, intraining exercises outside the pool to increase muscular endurance of musclesinvolved in the breaststroke technique.[/p][p]运动变量和肌电图之间的关系在游泳性能评估中是决定性的,在游泳池外进行训练,以增加蛙泳技术中肌肉的肌肉耐力。[/p]


1. Barbosa T, Keskinen K, Fernandes R,Colaço P, Lima A, Vilas Boas J. Energy cost and intracyclic variation of thevelocity of the centre of mass in butterfly stroke. Eur J Appl Physiol2005;93:519-23.      
2. VilasBoas J. Speed fluctuations andenergy cost of different breaststroke techniques. In: Biomechanics and Medicinein Swimming VII. 1996. p. 167-171, London: E & FN Spon.      
3. Takagi H, Sugimoto S, Nishijma N,Wilson B. Differences in stroke phases, arm leg coordination and velocityfluctuation due to event, gender and performance level in breaststroke. SportsBiomech 2004;3:15-27.      
4. Barbosa T, Lima F, Portela A, NovaisD, Machado L, Colaço P, et al. Relationships between energy cost, swimmingvelocity and speed fluctuation in competitive swimming strokes, In:Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X, Port J Sp Scie 2006;192-4.        
5. Barbosa T, Marinho D, Costa M, SilvaA. Biomechanics of Competitive Swimming Strokes. Biomech in Appli2011;367-88.    
6. Craig A, Skehan P, Pawelczyk J, BoomerW. Velocity, stroke rate and distance per stroke during elite swimmingcompetition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1985;7:62534.      
7. Craig A, Pendergast DR. Relationshipsof stroke rate, distance per stroke, and velocity in competitive swimming. MedSci Sports 1979;11:27883.    
8. McMurray RG, Deselm RL, Johnston LF.The use of arm stroke index to indicate improvement in swimming training duringa competitive season. J Swim Res 1990;6:10-5.      
9. Thompson KG, Haljand R, Lindley M. Acomparison of selected kinematic variables between races in national to elitemale 200m breaststroke swimmers. J Swim Res 2004;16:6-10.      
10. Maglisho E. Swimming fastest. HumanKinetics Champaign, Illinois, 2003.      
11. D'Aquisto LJ, Costill DL, Gehlson GM,WongTai Young MA, Ang G Lee. Breaststroke swimming economy, skill andperformance: study of breaststroke mechanics using a computer based"velocity video" system. J Swim Res 1988;4:9-13.      
12. Thompson KG, Haljand R.,Maclaren D.The relative importance of selected kinematic variables in relation to swimmingperformance in elite male and elite female 100m and 200 breaststroke swimmer. JHuman Movement Stud 2000a;39:15-32.      
13. Thompson KG, Haljand R, MaclarenD. Anysis of selected kinematic variables in national and elite male and female100m and 200 breaststroke swimmers. J Sports Sci 2000b;18:421-31.      
14. Leblanc H, Seifert L, Tourny- CholletC, Chollet D. Intracyclic distance per stroke phase, velocity fluctuation andacceleration time ratio of a breaststroker's hip: a comparison between eliteand non elite swimmers at different race paces. Int J Sports Med 2007;28:140-7.    
15. Neiva HP, Fernandes R, VilasBoas JP.Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques. Int J Sports Med2011;32:195-8.    
16. Choi SW, Kurokawa T, Ebisu Y, KikkawaK, Shiokawa M, Yamasaki M. Effect of wearing clothes on oxygen uptake andratings of perceived exertion while swimming. J Physiol Anthropol Appl HumanSci 2000;19:167-73.    
17. Reis V, Marinho D, Barbosa F, Reis A,Guidetti L, Silva A. Examining the accumulated oxygen deficit method inbreaststroke swimming. Eur J App Physiol 2010;109:1129-35.      
18. Barbosa T, Bragada J, Reis V, MarinhoD, Carvalho C, Silva J. Energetics and biomechanics as determining factors ofswimming performance: updating the state of the art. J Sci Med Sport2010;13:262-9.        
19. Mouroço P, Keskinen K, VilasBoas J,Fernandes R. Relationship between tethered forces and the four swimmingtechniques performance. J Appl Biomech 2011;27:161-9.        
20. Grote K, Lincoln TL, Gamble JG. Hipabductor injury in competitive swimmers. Am J Sports Med 2004;32:104-8.    
21. Clarys J. The Brussels Swimming EMGproject. In: Swimming Science V.1988, p. 157172, Illinois: Human KineticsBooks.        
22. Rouard A, Clarys J. Cocontraction inthe elbow and shoulder muscles during rapid cyclic movements in an aquaticenvironment. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 1995;5:177-83.        
23. Clarys JP, Rouard A. The front crawldownsweep: Shoulder protection and/or performance inhibition. J Sports Med PhysFitness 1996;36:121-6.        
24. Caty V, Rouard A, Hintzy Y, AujoannetY, Molinari M, Knaflitz M. Time- frequency parameters of wrist muscles EMGafter an exhaustive freestyle test. Port J Sp Sci 2006;6:28-30.      
25. Aujoannet YA, Bonifazi M,Hintzy F,Vuillerme N, Rouard AH. Effects of a highintensity swim test on kinematicparameters in high-level athletes. Appl Biomech Phys Nutr Met2006;31:150-8.      
26. Stirn I, Jarm T, Kapus V, Strojnik V.Evaluation of muscle fatigue during 100m front crawl. Eur J Appl Physiol2011;111:101-13.      
27. Figueiredo P. Biophysical ysis ofthe 200 m Front Crawl - Interplay between the biomechanical, energetic,coordinative, and muscular factors. Doctoral Thesis in Sport Sciences.Centre ofResearch, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport Faculty of Sport,University of Porto, 2011.      
28. Monteil KM, Rouard AH, Dufour AB,Troup JP. EMG of the shoulder muscles during an exhaustive front crawl testrealised in a flume. In: XIV I.S.B. Congress 1993 (pp. 896-897).      
29. Rouard AH, Billat RP, Deschodt V,Clarys JP. Muscular activations during repetitions of sculling movements up toexhaustion in swimming. Arch Physiol Biochem 1997;105:655-62.        
30. Wakayoshi K, Moritani T, Mutoh Y,Miyashita M. Electromyographic evidence of selective muscle fatigue duringcompetitive swimming. In: Miyashita M, Mutoh Y, Richardson Ab (eds) Medicineand Sport Science. 1994;16-23.      
31. Conceição A, Gamboa H, Palma S,Araújo T, Nunes N, Marinho D, et al. Comparison between the standard averagemuscle activation with the use of snorkel and without snorkel in breaststroketechnique. In: XI International Symposium Biomechanics and Medicine inSwimming, Oslo. Abstract Book. 2010, pp. 46-7.        
32. Ruwe PA, Pink M, Jobe FW, Perry J,Scovazzo ML. The normal and the painful shoulders during the breaststroke.Electromyographic and cinematographic ysis of twelve muscles. Am J Sported 1994;22:789-96.  
33. Nuber GW, Jobe FW, Perry J, MoynesDR, Antonelli D. Fine wire electromyography ysis of muscles of the shoulderduring swimming. Am J Sports Med 1986;14:7-11.    
34. Harriss DJ, Atkinson G.Ethicalstandards in sport and exercise science research. Int J Sports Med2009;30:701-2.      
35. DeLeva P. Adjustments toZatsiorskySeluyanov's segment inertia parameters. J Biomech1996;29:1223-30.      
36. Hirata RP, Duarte M. Effect ofrelative knee position on internal mechanical loading during squatting. Braz JPhys Ther 2007;11.      
37. Barbosa T, Bragada J, Reis V,MarinhoD, Carvalho C, Silva J. Energetics and biomechanics as determining factors ofswimming performance: updating the state of the art. J Sci Med Sports2010;13:262-9.  
38. Colman V, Persyn U, Daly D, StijnenV. A comparison of the intracyclic velocity variation in breaststroke swimmerswith flat and undulating styles. J Sports Sci 1998;16:653-65.      
39. AbdelAziz Y, Karara H. Direct lineartransformation: from comparator coordinates into object coordinates in closerange photogrammetry. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Close-RangePhotogrammetry (pp. 1-18). Illinois: Church Falls, 1971.    
40. Winter D. (1990). Biomechanic andmotor control of human movement. Chichester: John Wiley and sons.        
41. Herrmens HJ, Freriks B. Europeanrecommendations for surface electromyography, results of the SENIAM project(CDrom). Roessingh Research and Development, Enschede; 1999.        
42. Baajian V, De Luca C. MusclesAlive. Williams and Willkins: Baltimore, USA; 1985.        
43. Hohmann A, Kirsten R, Kruger T.EMGModel of the Backstroke Start Technique. In: J.P., Vilas Boas, F., Alves,A., Marques (eds), X International Symposium of Biomechanics and Medicine inSwimming. Port J Sp Scie 2006;6:38-9.        
44. Proakis JG, Manolakis DG. DigitalSignal Processing (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall), 1996.        
45. Oliveira MF, Caputo F, Lucas RD,Denadai BS, Greco CC. Physiological and Stroke Parameters to assess aerobiccapacity in swimming. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2012;7:218-23.          
46. Lomax, M. The effect of threerecovery protocols on blood lactate clearance following race paced swimming. JStrength Cond Res 2012;26:27716.        
47. Capelli C, Pendergast DR, Termin B.Energetics of swimming at maximal speeds in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol OccupPhys 1998;78:385-93.        
48. Silva A. The importance of thevariance of the velocity of the center of mass of the body of a swimmer inbreaststroke technique.(Unpublished doctoral dissertation) UniversityofTrás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal, 2001.        
49. Alberty M, Sidney M, Huot-Marchand F,Hespel JM, Pelayo P. Intracyclic velocity variations and arm coordinationduring exhaustive exercise in front crawl stroke. Int J Sports Med2005;26:471-5.        




沙发L&PD宇宙冠军 04-13 08:29
板凳ppzyppzy宇宙冠军 04-13 09:22
3楼ppzyppzy宇宙冠军 04-14 19:39
4楼ppzyppzy宇宙冠军 04-15 09:08
5楼Xpunker宇宙冠军 04-15 11:22
6楼ppzyppzy宇宙冠军 04-16 19:19
7楼zhhj7404宇宙冠军 04-17 14:21
8楼ppzyppzy宇宙冠军 04-18 09:52
9楼ppzyppzy宇宙冠军 04-19 08:51
登录后才可以回帖,登录 或者 注册